Abu Qatadah Al-Ansari (RAA) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was asked about fasting on the day of Arafah (the 9th of the month of Dhul Hijjah). He replied, "Fasting on the day of Arafah is an expiation for the preceding year and the following year.” He was also asked about fasting on the day of Ashura (the 10th of the month of Muharram). He replied, “Fasting on the day of Ashura is an expiation for the preceding year.” The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was also asked about fasting on Monday, and he replied, "This is the day on which I was born and the day on which I was sent (with the Message of Islam) and the day on which I received revelation." Related by Muslim.
Bulugh al-Maram » Book of Fasting
الحمد لله رب العالمين، والصلاة والسلام على نبينا محمد، وعلى آله وصحبه أجمعين.
As Salaamu Alaikum Wa Rahmutallahi Wa Baraakaatahu,
As this blessed 10 Days of Dhul Hijjah is upon us; It is vital that we understand the virtue of these days and the significance of our worship in this special time. We will go through the benefits of the aforementioned hadeeth, taken from Buloogh Al Marram, under the chapter Voluntary Fasting and Its Prohibitions.
Shaykh 'Abd Allah al-Bassam (1423H) رحمه الله mentions a number of benefits that can be taken from this hadeeth.
1) Fasting the day of Arafah is an action that is highly recommended, from the righteous actions; and it is the 9th day of Dhul Hijjah. For verily, this great day expiates the sins from the past year and the forthcoming year. Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى mentions in the Qur'aan, Suratul Al Fateh, '1
لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا - 48:2
That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favour on you, and guide you on the Straight Path
2) He mentions that fasting on the day of Arafah is the best of the voluntary fasts, by consensus of the scholars of Al Islaam.
3) Fasting on the day of Arafah is highly recommended for those who are not partaking in the Hajj. Ikrimah رحمه الله narrates:"I entered upon Abu Hurairah in his house and asked him about fasting the Day of Arafat at Arafat. Abu Hurairah said: ‘The Messenger of Allah ﷺ forbade fasting the Day of Arafat at Arafat. '2
4) It is noted that the day of Al Ashur'aa is likewise highly recommended; and this day is the 10th Al Muharram. As The Messenger of Allah ﷺ stated it is an expiation for the previous year alone, and not the forthcoming year. For that reason it is considered less in virtue in comparison to Yawmul Al Arafat; which expiates the past year and the year that is to come insha Allah Ta'aala.
5) Shaykh Al Islam Ibn Taymiyyah mentions that the first 10 days of Dhul Hijjah are more virtuous than the last 10 days of Ramadan; and the last ten nights of Ramadan are more virtuous than the nights of Dhul Hijjah. Ibn Al Qayyim, further mentions that there are no days more beloved to Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى than the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah, and in relation to the last ten nights of Ramadan; then it includes within it Layla tul Qadr, and it is better than a thousand months.
May Allah سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَى accept from us our fasting and good deeds in these virtuous days and make us from those who turn to him in forgiveness and repentance.
Wa Sallallahu ‘Alaa Nabiyinaa Muhammad
Abu Ibraheem Abdur Raheem McQueen
Dhuʻl-Hijjah 2, 1441 AH / 23/07/2020
Translation Reference (P.531 , Explanantion of Shaykh 'Abd Allah al-Bassam (رحمه الله) , Tawdeeh Al Ahkaam Sharh Buloogh Al Maraam, Kitaab Siyaam, Chapter Voluntary Fasting & Prohibitions)
1) Al Quraan, Surah Al Fateh 48, Ayaah 2
2) Ibn Majah, Hadith No. 1732.